Posted by Miqe on February 19, 2010
Viruses included in the family Iridoviridae are large, icosahedral, dsDNA viruses that are subdivided into 5 genera. Frog virus 3 (FV3) is the type species of the genus Ranavirus and the best studied iridovirus at the molecular level.
Typically, antibodies directed against a virus act to neutralize the virus and limit infection. Antibody dependent enhancement occurs when viral antibodies enhance infectivity of the virus rather than neutralize it.
Results: Here we show that anti-FV3 serum present at the time of FV3 infection enhances infectivity of the virus in two non-immune teleost cell lines.
We found that antibody dependent enhancement of FV3 was dependent on the Fc portion of anti-FV3 antibodies but not related to complement. Furthermore, the presence of anti-FV3 serum during an FV3 infection in a non-immune mammalian cell line resulted in neutralization of the virus.
Our results suggest that a cell surface receptor specific to teleost cell lines is responsible for the enhancement.
Conclusions: This report represents the first evidence of antibody dependent enhancement in iridoviruses. The data suggests that anti-FV3 serum can either neutralize or enhance viral infection and that enhancement is related to a novel antibody dependent enhancement pathway found in teleosts that is Fc dependent.
Author: Heather EatonEmily PennyCraig Brunetti
Credits/Source: Virology Journal 2010, 7:41
From 7:th space, available via BioMedCentral (Open Access).
Posted in Amphibians, Herpetology, Herps in the news, International articles and news., Science/Scientific papers | Tagged: virus | Leave a Comment »
Posted by Miqe on February 18, 2010
Ever heard of a Mountain Chicken? Nope … it is not a bird. Would you believe me if I told you it was a type of amphibian? Seriously - it is!
The Mountain Chicken, also known as the Giant Ditch Frog (Leptodactylus fallax) is a HUGE frog that lives on the islands of
Mountain Chicken, also known as the Giant Ditch Frog (Leptodactylus fallax).
Dominica and Montserrat. At just over 6 inches in length, it is one of the largest frogs in the world!
It used to be found on several more islands including Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint Kitts and Nevis … but populations of this frog have unfortunately disappeared completely from these islands. As of 1999, the species range had decreased to a mere 17 square kilometer area on Montserrat.
Did you enjoy this article so far?
Well then, you can find the rest of it at the SaveTheReptiles.com webpage.
Posted in Amphibians, Herps in the news, International articles and news. | Tagged: frog, Giant ditch frog, Mountain chicken | Leave a Comment »
Posted by Miqe on February 8, 2010
Join in and help Amphibian and Reptile Conservation save toads as they cross roads around the UK for their spring breeding season. Sign up, become a toad-patroller and get volunteering in spring 2010…
Amphibian and Reptile Conservation is currently gearing up for its 2010 Toads on Roads campaign – our most concerted effort ever to help toads, and to find out more about their declines nationally.
Crucially though, we need you!
We need people to volunteer for Toads on Roads: help with Toads on Roads patrols, or to discover how toads are doing at sites for which we no longer have information. Sign up at www.froglife.org/toadsonroads
Find out more about opportunities to help amphibians and reptiles locally through ARG-UK (the national network of Amphibian and Reptile Groups) – www.arguk.org
Posted in Amphibians, European focus, Fieldherping, Herpetology | Tagged: help, road, save, toad, UK | 1 Comment »
Posted by Miqe on February 2, 2010
This lizard is mainly a ground-dwelling species that can be found in Spain, Portugal, southern France and northwestern Italy and the northwestern parts of Africa.
In the wild it is living in sunny, rocky and bushy slopes or stone walls. It is one of the largest species in Europe, up to 80cm´s including the tail (body 1/3 and tail 2/3 of total length). It is a heavily built and strong animal. The colour is green, brown or a mixture between those colours. The young animals (juveniles), colour are yellowish brown to green, with ”eyes”/spots. Both sexes have as adults blue spots (Jewels/Eyes), but the males have
often more spots that are brighter in colouration. The head of the male is bigger than the females. Males have clearly visible Feromalpores.
• For a pair (2 adult individuals) a terrarium that measures L=120cm´s, D=80 cm´s, H=60cm´s is appropriate.
• Sand is a good substrate, 5-15 cm´s thick layer.
• The temperature should be between 24-27 ºC, with a baskingspot that keeps a temperature of 30-35ºC. Spray the terrarium every 2-3 day in the evenings(60-70% humidity), a little extra when the animal/s is shedding.
• Uv-B is necessary for the species.
• Big stones and roots/branches make good interior. Provide the animal/s with a lot of hiding places. Make the interior as a steppenvironment.
• In the wild the species consumes insects, snails/slugs, new hatched birds, small rodents and some sweet fruit. In captivity it eats almost anything that is served.
Pinkie-mice, cockroaches, snails/slugs, bushcrickets, crickets, small pieces of
non-fat meat and some sweet fruit such as: Banana, Apricot and Strawberries.
They will also eat egg.
• Dust all food with a vitamin and calcium supplement.
• Allways provide a waterbowl with fresh drinkingwater.
This species require a hibernationperiod of 2-3 months, with temperatures from+4ºC to +7ºC.• Mating will occur about 1-3 weeks after the hibernation is over and the temperaturesin the terrarium is back to normal. About 1 week before depositing of the eggs, the female will be acting restless,with a lot of digging and searching in the terrarium. She might stop eating as well.Provide the female with a egg-layingbox, filled to 2/3 with moisted Vermiculite® ormoisted peat/soil (unfetilized). IMPORTANT! Vermiculite®, should be moisted in aratio of 1:1. By weight, not by volume! The clutchsize will be 8-20 eggs and should be incubated in 28ºC – 30ºC in a humidityof 80% – 90%, with a nigt-temperature about 24ºC – 25ºC. The young lizardsshould hatch in 85 – 120 days, with theese temperatures. 1 – 3 clutches are laid inone season.• Juveniles are about 5 cm´s when hatched (tail included), and should be fed withthe same food as the adults (1 – 3 times a week), but smaller in size. Dust all foodwith a vitamin and calcium supplement. Do not overfeed! The young lizards will reach sexual maturity in about 2-3 years.
The terrarium should be kept clean. Excrements, urine and leftover food should beremoved as it appears. Clean the terrarium and everything inside it carefully 1-2times/year, exchange the substrate at the same time. Allways wash your handsafter holding the animal or after you have been doing something in the terrarium.
Good luck with your animal!
This caresheet is available on the Terrarium Morbidum site, as a free downloadable pdf-file.
Posted in Caresheets, European focus, Herpetology, Lacertids, Lizards, Reptiles | Tagged: care, care sheet, eyed, jeweled, lepidus, lizard, Timon | 5 Comments »